Stock Market Trend Prediction Using Recurrent. predict stock market price using neural-based nonlinear autoregressive exogenous model. Further, most research has been used stock pattern recognition model by matching template with many fixed weights assigned by researchers [6]. NARX model are verified for several types of chaotic or Thus, the aim of this research is to predict the future close price of the stock using promising classes of, This study focuses on predicting stock closing prices by using recurrent neural networks (RNNs). A long short-term memory (LSTM) model, a type of RNN coupled with stock basic trading data and technical indicators, is introduced as a novel method to predict the closing price of the stock market..

### Neural Networks to Predict Stock Market Price IAENG

Financial Market Time Series Prediction with Recurrent. models with deep recurrent neural networks provides a new way of formulating volatility (the degree of variation of time series) models that have been widely used in time series anal- ysis and prediction in п¬Ѓnance. The model comprises a pair of complementary stochastic recurrent neural networks: the gen-erative network models the joint distribution of the stochas-tic volatility process; the, Abstract Volatility in stock markets has been extensively studied in the applied finance literature. In this paper, Artificial Neural Network models based on various back propagation algorithms have been constructed to predict volatility in the Indian stock market through volatility of NIFTY returns and volatility of gold returns..

BigDataFinance - 7 26 Aug 2016 Case Studies Price-based Classification Models вЂ“Dixon et al. (2016) use a deep neural network to predict the sign of the price change over the next 5 minutes for 43 4) Using a feed-forward neural network with back propagation learning is not recommended in combination with the GJR-GARCH for volatility forecasting under any circumstances (economic conditions). This is a direct outcome of the hybrid model performance, as tested in Tables 2, 3, 4 and 5 (line 1). 5) Each crisis has its own characteristics, so there is no best architecture for forecasting

Expert systems for trading signal detection have received considerable attention in recent years. In financial trading systems, investorsвЂ™ main concern is determining the best time to buy or sell a stock. and recurrent neural networks are the hottest topics of many approaches in financial market prediction field [2, 5]. Among all the machine learning methods, neural

This paper investigates the profitability of a trading strategy, based on recurrent neural networks, that attempts to predict the direction-of-change of the market in the case of the NASDAQ general index. The sample extends over the period 2/8/1971 - 4/7/1998, while the sub-period 4/8/1998 - 2/5 Stock Market Predictor using Supervised Learning Aim. To examine a number of different forecasting techniques to predict future stock returns based on past returns and numerical news indicators to construct a portfolio of multiple stocks in order to diversify the risk.

BigDataFinance - 7 26 Aug 2016 Case Studies Price-based Classification Models вЂ“Dixon et al. (2016) use a deep neural network to predict the sign of the price change over the next 5 minutes for 43 Empirical Research on Volatility Modeling . Stock market analysis is an area of financial application. Detecting trends of stock market data is a difficult task as they have complex,

This paper describes a hybrid model formed by a mixture of various regressive neural network models, such as temporal self-organising maps and support vector regressions, for modelling and prediction of foreign exchange rate time series. In recent years, financial market dynamics forecasting has been a focus of economic research. To predict the price indices of stock markets, we developed an architecture which combined Elman recurrent neural networks with stochastic time effective function.

A HYBRID RECURRENT NEURAL NETWORKS MODEL 5561 2.1. Technical analysis. Technical analysis is an attempt to predict future stock price movements by analyzing the past sequence of stock prices (Pring 1991) [15], and it relies on Stock Forecasting Software using Neural Networks. Dynamic systems like the stock market are often influenced by numerous complex factors. Often many interrelated variables, such as closing price, highs, lows, and volume, influence stock prices.

This neural network serves as the main prediction system and takes as input 100 consecutive 65-minute stock price data points (date and time, open price, min price, max price, close price, and volume) and the sentiment value. models with deep recurrent neural networks provides a new way of formulating volatility (the degree of variation of time series) models that have been widely used in time series anal- ysis and prediction in п¬Ѓnance. The model comprises a pair of complementary stochastic recurrent neural networks: the gen-erative network models the joint distribution of the stochas-tic volatility process; the

### Using Artificial Neural Networks and Sentiment Analysis to

Volatility Forecasting Using a Hybrid GJR-GARCH Neural. Understanding Stock Market Prediction Using Artificial Neural Networks and Their Adaptations Tali Soroker is a Financial Analyst at I Know First. She graduated from Northeastern University with a Bachelor degree in Mathematics., 4) Using a feed-forward neural network with back propagation learning is not recommended in combination with the GJR-GARCH for volatility forecasting under any circumstances (economic conditions). This is a direct outcome of the hybrid model performance, as tested in Tables 2, 3, 4 and 5 (line 1). 5) Each crisis has its own characteristics, so there is no best architecture for forecasting.

StocksNeural.net Stocks prices prediction using Deep. This paper describes a hybrid model formed by a mixture of various regressive neural network models, such as temporal self-organising maps and support vector regressions, for modelling and prediction of foreign exchange rate time series., BigDataFinance - 7 26 Aug 2016 Case Studies Price-based Classification Models вЂ“Dixon et al. (2016) use a deep neural network to predict the sign of the price change over the next 5 minutes for 43.

### (PDF) Stock Volatility Prediction Using Recurrent Neural

Research Article Financial Time Series Prediction Using. This paper investigates the profitability of a trading strategy, based on recurrent neural networks, that attempts to predict the direction-of-change of the market in the case of the NASDAQ general index. The sample extends over the period 2/8/1971 - 4/7/1998, while the sub-period 4/8/1998 - 2/5 Abstract Volatility in stock markets has been extensively studied in the applied finance literature. In this paper, Artificial Neural Network models based on various back propagation algorithms have been constructed to predict volatility in the Indian stock market through volatility of NIFTY returns and volatility of gold returns..

This neural network serves as the main prediction system and takes as input 100 consecutive 65-minute stock price data points (date and time, open price, min price, max price, close price, and volume) and the sentiment value. This study focuses on predicting stock closing prices by using recurrent neural networks (RNNs). A long short-term memory (LSTM) model, a type of RNN coupled with stock basic trading data and technical indicators, is introduced as a novel method to predict the closing price of the stock market.

predict stock market price using neural-based nonlinear autoregressive exogenous model. Further, most research has been used stock pattern recognition model by matching template with many fixed weights assigned by researchers [6]. NARX model are verified for several types of chaotic or Thus, the aim of this research is to predict the future close price of the stock using promising classes of In recent years, financial market dynamics forecasting has been a focus of economic research. To predict the price indices of stock markets, we developed an architecture which combined Elman recurrent neural networks with stochastic time effective function.

Direction-of-change forecasting using a volatility based recurrent neural January 2004 Abstract This paper investigates the profitability of a trading strategy, based on recurrent neural networks, that attempts to predict the direction-of-change of the market in the case of the NASDAQ general index. The sample extends over the period 2/8/1971 вЂ“ 4/7/1998, while the sub-period 4/8/1998 managers can use neural networks to plan and construct proп¬Ѓtable portfoliosin real-time. As the application As the application of neural networks in the п¬Ѓnancial area is so vast, this paper will focus on stock market prediction.

Such sentimental information is represented by two sentiment indicators, which are fused to market data for stock volatility prediction by using the Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs). Empirical study shows that, comparing to using RNN only, the model performs significantly better вЂ¦ This paper investigates the profitability of a trading strategy, based on recurrent neural networks, that attempts to predict the direction-of-change of the market in the case of the NASDAQ composite index. The sample extends over the period 8 February 1971 to 7 April 1998, while the sub-period 8 April 1998 to 5 February 2002 has been reserved for out-of-sample testing purposes. We demonstrate

The cost function, as the name suggests is the cost of making a prediction using the neural network. It is a measure of how far off the predicted value, y^, is from the actual or observed value, y. There are many cost functions that are used in practice, the most popular one is computed as half of the sum of squared differences of the actual and predicted values for the training dataset. and recurrent neural networks are the hottest topics of many approaches in financial market prediction field [2, 5]. Among all the machine learning methods, neural

and recurrent neural networks are the hottest topics of many approaches in financial market prediction field [2, 5]. Among all the machine learning methods, neural However, stock market prediction networks have also been implemented using genetic algorithms, recurrent networks, and modular networks. This section discusses some of the network architectures used and their effect on performance.

Artiп¬Ѓcial neural networks approach to the forecast of stock market price movements Luca Di Persio University of Verona Department of Computer Science A HYBRID RECURRENT NEURAL NETWORKS MODEL 5561 2.1. Technical analysis. Technical analysis is an attempt to predict future stock price movements by analyzing the past sequence of stock prices (Pring 1991) [15], and it relies on

One-Step and Multi-Step Ahead Stock Prediction Using Backpropagation Neural Networks . Guanqun Dong, Kamaladdin Fataliyev, Lipo Wang . School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering Use Git or checkout with SVN using the web URL. Recurrent Neural Net predicting Stock volatility. This repository contains Python code to train a recurrent Neural Network which tries to model the volatility of the daily returns of the SP500 index. To run the code. Download the repository content by clicking "Download ZIP" and unzipping to a folder on your machine. Download a Python вЂ¦

## Direction-of-change forecasting using a volatility-based

Backpropagation and Recurrent Neural Networks in Financial. StocksNeural.net analyzes and predicts stock prices using Deep Learning and provides useful trade recommendations (Buy/Sell signals) for the individual traders and asset management companies. Predictive models based on Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN) and Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) are at the heart of our service., 4) Using a feed-forward neural network with back propagation learning is not recommended in combination with the GJR-GARCH for volatility forecasting under any circumstances (economic conditions). This is a direct outcome of the hybrid model performance, as tested in Tables 2, 3, 4 and 5 (line 1). 5) Each crisis has its own characteristics, so there is no best architecture for forecasting.

### USING A DYNAMIC ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK FOR

Recurrent Neural Networks in Forecasting S&P 500 index.. Stock market prediction using neural networks: Does trading volume help in short-term prediction? Proceedings of IEEE International Joint Conference on Neural Networks, 4, 2438вЂ“2442. Proceedings of IEEE International Joint Conference on Neural Networks, 4, 2438вЂ“2442., stock price movements prediction, a theme of increas- ing relevance in actual п¬Ѓnancial markets, particularly from the point of view of the so called fast trading.

However, stock market prediction networks have also been implemented using genetic algorithms, recurrent networks, and modular networks. This section discusses some of the network architectures used and their effect on performance. Typical volatility plot. Hi again! In last three tutorials we compared different architectures for financial time series forecasting, realized how to do this forecasting adequately with correct data preprocessing and regularization and even did our forecasts based on multivariate time series.

models with deep recurrent neural networks provides a new way of formulating volatility (the degree of variation of time series) models that have been widely used in time series anal- ysis and prediction in п¬Ѓnance. The model comprises a pair of complementary stochastic recurrent neural networks: the gen-erative network models the joint distribution of the stochas-tic volatility process; the As a special recurrent neural network, the Elman recurrent neural network (ERNN) has been used in the present paper for prediction. ERNN is a time-varying predictive control system that was developed with the ability to keep memory of recent events in order to predict future output.

Huarng and Yu [11] used back-propagation neural network to predict stock price. Some researchers regard stock price as time series [12], [13] and use short-term memory model Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) to forecast time series [14], [15]. Based on the findings above, these models exist three main disadvantages. (1) The traditional time series models use historical stock data as the input After the neural networks training, we perform so-called вЂbacktestingвЂ™ of most accurate networks for each stock symbol, using test set of data that was not used for training. Thus, we estimate accuracy of predictions for each neural network on the out-of-sample data and for further real market predictions we use only networks which provide satisfying results.

This paper investigates the profitability of a trading strategy, based on recurrent neural networks, that attempts to predict the directionвЂђofвЂђchange of the market in the case of the NASDAQ composite index. The sample extends over the period 8 February 1971 to 7 April 1998, while the subвЂђperiod 8 April 1998 to 5 February 2002 has been reserved for outвЂђofвЂђsample testing purposes. We 1456 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NEURAL NETWORKS, VOL. 9, NO. 6, NOVEMBER 1998 Comparative Study of Stock Trend Prediction Using Time Delay, Recurrent and

As a special recurrent neural network, the Elman recurrent neural network (ERNN) has been used in the present paper for prediction. ERNN is a time-varying predictive control system that was developed with the ability to keep memory of recent events in order to predict future output. Stock Forecasting Software using Neural Networks. Dynamic systems like the stock market are often influenced by numerous complex factors. Often many interrelated variables, such as closing price, highs, lows, and volume, influence stock prices.

Stock Market Trend Prediction Using Recurrent Convolutional Neural Networks 169 where b is the index of the embedding layer and w ab is the weight between вЂ¦ In recent years, financial market dynamics forecasting has been a focus of economic research. To predict the price indices of stock markets, we developed an architecture which combined Elman recurrent neural networks with stochastic time effective function.

the prediction of volatility a challenging task even for experts in this field. Mathematical modeling can assist in detecting the dependencies between current values of вЂ¦ Empirical Research on Volatility Modeling . Stock market analysis is an area of financial application. Detecting trends of stock market data is a difficult task as they have complex,

This study focuses on predicting stock closing prices by using recurrent neural networks (RNNs). A long short-term memory (LSTM) model, a type of RNN coupled with stock basic trading data and technical indicators, is introduced as a novel method to predict the closing price of the stock market. This paper investigates the profitability of a trading strategy, based on recurrent neural networks, that attempts to predict the directionвЂђofвЂђchange of the market in the case of the NASDAQ composite index. The sample extends over the period 8 February 1971 to 7 April 1998, while the subвЂђperiod 8 April 1998 to 5 February 2002 has been reserved for outвЂђofвЂђsample testing purposes. We

This paper investigates the profitability of a trading strategy, based on recurrent neural networks, that attempts to predict the direction-of-change of the market in the case of the NASDAQ composite index. The sample extends over the period 2/8/1971 \u2013 4/7/1998, while the sub-period 4/8/1998 Stock market prediction using neural networks: Does trading volume help in short-term prediction? Proceedings of IEEE International Joint Conference on Neural Networks, 4, 2438вЂ“2442. Proceedings of IEEE International Joint Conference on Neural Networks, 4, 2438вЂ“2442.

Using a dynamic artificial neural network for forecasting the volatility of a financial time series 129 Revista IngenierГas Universidad de MedellГn, vol. 12, No. 22 pp. 127- 136 - ISSN 1692- 3324 - enero-junio de 2013/204 p. and recurrent neural networks are the hottest topics of many approaches in financial market prediction field [2, 5]. Among all the machine learning methods, neural

Research Article Financial Time Series Prediction Using Elman Recurrent Random Neural Networks JieWang, 1 JunWang, 1 WenFang, 2 andHongliNiu 1 School of Science, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing , China However, stock market prediction networks have also been implemented using genetic algorithms, recurrent networks, and modular networks. This section discusses some of the network architectures used and their effect on performance.

4) Using a feed-forward neural network with back propagation learning is not recommended in combination with the GJR-GARCH for volatility forecasting under any circumstances (economic conditions). This is a direct outcome of the hybrid model performance, as tested in Tables 2, 3, 4 and 5 (line 1). 5) Each crisis has its own characteristics, so there is no best architecture for forecasting Direction-of-change forecasting using a volatility based recurrent neural January 2004 Abstract This paper investigates the profitability of a trading strategy, based on recurrent neural networks, that attempts to predict the direction-of-change of the market in the case of the NASDAQ general index. The sample extends over the period 2/8/1971 вЂ“ 4/7/1998, while the sub-period 4/8/1998

the prediction of volatility a challenging task even for experts in this field. Mathematical modeling can assist in detecting the dependencies between current values of вЂ¦ Chinese Stock Price and Volatility Predictions with Multiple Technical Indicators . fit from the marketвЂ™s direction. One such example is the Linear Time Series Models, where univariate and multi- variate regression models [2] were used to identify pat- terns in the historical data of the stock market. For non- linear patterns, Machine Learning Models [3], in parti- cular neural networks

Research Article Financial Time Series Prediction Using Elman Recurrent Random Neural Networks JieWang, 1 JunWang, 1 WenFang, 2 andHongliNiu 1 School of Science, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing , China Stock Market Trend Prediction Using Recurrent Convolutional Neural Networks 169 where b is the index of the embedding layer and w ab is the weight between вЂ¦

Artiп¬Ѓcial neural networks approach to the forecast of stock market price movements Luca Di Persio University of Verona Department of Computer Science We simulate daily trading of straddles on the financial indexes DAX and FTSE 100. The straddles are traded based on predictions of daily volatility differences in the underlying indexes. The main predictive models studied in this paper are recurrent neural networks (RNNs). In the past, applications

Such sentimental information is represented by two sentiment indicators, which are fused to market data for stock volatility prediction by using the Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs). Empirical study shows that, comparing to using RNN only, the model performs significantly better вЂ¦ Elman dynamic recurrent neural network model[3-4] to carry modeling forecast for stock index, this neural network has better effect in dealing with time varying information aspect, the results show that using it to predict time varying stock index will have satisfactory effect.

Stock Market Value Prediction Using Neural Networks. This paper investigates the profitability of a trading strategy, based on recurrent neural networks, that attempts to predict the direction-of-change of the market in the case of the NASDAQ composite index. The sample extends over the period 2/8/1971 \u2013 4/7/1998, while the sub-period 4/8/1998, Expert systems for trading signal detection have received considerable attention in recent years. In financial trading systems, investorsвЂ™ main concern is determining the best time to buy or sell a stock..

### What would be the best inputs for a neural network

Stock Volatility Prediction Using Recurrent Neural CORE. sentiment indicators, which are fused to market data for stock volatility prediction by using the Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs). Empirical study shows that, comparing to using RNN only, the model performs signiп¬Ѓcantly better with sentimental indicators. Keywords: Natural language processing, Stock volatility prediction, Sentimental analysis, Sentimental score 1 Introduction In time-series, Forecasting stock index returns using a volatility based recurrent neural network * Stelios D. Bekiros & Dimitris A. Georgoutsos Department of Accounting and Finance Athens University of Economics and Business 76 Patission str., 104 34 Athens, GREECE October 2004 Abstract This paper investigates the profitability of a trading strategy, based on recurrent neural networks, that attempts to.

Using Artificial Neural Networks and Sentiment Analysis to. Understanding Stock Market Prediction Using Artificial Neural Networks and Their Adaptations Tali Soroker is a Financial Analyst at I Know First. She graduated from Northeastern University with a Bachelor degree in Mathematics., This paper investigates the profitability of a trading strategy, based on recurrent neural networks, that attempts to predict the directionвЂђofвЂђchange of the market in the case of the NASDAQ composite index. The sample extends over the period 8 February 1971 to 7 April 1998, while the subвЂђperiod 8 April 1998 to 5 February 2002 has been reserved for outвЂђofвЂђsample testing purposes. We.

### The stock index forecast based on dynamic recurrent neural

What would be the best inputs for a neural network. managers can use neural networks to plan and construct proп¬Ѓtable portfoliosin real-time. As the application As the application of neural networks in the п¬Ѓnancial area is so vast, this paper will focus on stock market prediction. One-Step and Multi-Step Ahead Stock Prediction Using Backpropagation Neural Networks . Guanqun Dong, Kamaladdin Fataliyev, Lipo Wang . School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering.

This paper investigates the profitability of a trading strategy, based on recurrent neural networks, that attempts to predict the direction-of-change of the market in the case of the NASDAQ general index. The sample extends over the period 2/8/1971 - 4/7/1998, while the sub-period 4/8/1998 - 2/5 As a special recurrent neural network, the Elman recurrent neural network (ERNN) has been used in the present paper for prediction. ERNN is a time-varying predictive control system that was developed with the ability to keep memory of recent events in order to predict future output.

Stock Market Predictor using Supervised Learning Aim. To examine a number of different forecasting techniques to predict future stock returns based on past returns and numerical news indicators to construct a portfolio of multiple stocks in order to diversify the risk. This study focuses on predicting stock closing prices by using recurrent neural networks (RNNs). A long short-term memory (LSTM) model, a type of RNN coupled with stock basic trading data and technical indicators, is introduced as a novel method to predict the closing price of the stock market.

Read "Recurrent neural network and a hybrid model for prediction of stock returns, Expert Systems with Applications" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips. This paper investigates the profitability of a trading strategy, based on recurrent neural networks, that attempts to predict the direction-of-change of the market in the case of the NASDAQ composite index. The sample extends over the period 2/8/1971 \u2013 4/7/1998, while the sub-period 4/8/1998

predict the yearly change in stock pricethe of U.S. firms. We demonstrate that neural networks and Оµ-support We demonstrate that neural networks and Оµ-support vector regression perform better than linear regression models especially when using the sentiment information. BigDataFinance - 7 26 Aug 2016 Case Studies Price-based Classification Models вЂ“Dixon et al. (2016) use a deep neural network to predict the sign of the price change over the next 5 minutes for 43

Read "Recurrent neural network and a hybrid model for prediction of stock returns, Expert Systems with Applications" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips. Stock Market Trend Prediction Using Recurrent Convolutional Neural Networks 169 where b is the index of the embedding layer and w ab is the weight between вЂ¦

This paper investigates the profitability of a trading strategy, based on recurrent neural networks, that attempts to predict the direction-of-change of the market in the case of the NASDAQ composite index. The sample extends over the period 2/8/1971 \u2013 4/7/1998, while the sub-period 4/8/1998 Read "Recurrent neural network and a hybrid model for prediction of stock returns, Expert Systems with Applications" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.

Neural Network is a very useful tool in predicting different kinds of complex signals, but it's complexity grows exponentially with growing layers of network. and recurrent neural networks are the hottest topics of many approaches in financial market prediction field [2, 5]. Among all the machine learning methods, neural

Such sentimental information is represented by two sentiment indicators, which are fused to market data for stock volatility prediction by using the Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs). Empirical study shows that, comparing to using RNN only, the model performs significantly better вЂ¦ stock price movements prediction, a theme of increas- ing relevance in actual п¬Ѓnancial markets, particularly from the point of view of the so called fast trading

This paper investigates the profitability of a trading strategy, based on recurrent neural networks, that attempts to predict the direction-of-change of the market in the case of the NASDAQ composite index. The sample extends over the period 8 February 1971 to 7 April 1998, while the sub-period 8 April 1998 to 5 February 2002 has been reserved for out-of-sample testing purposes. We demonstrate Using a dynamic artificial neural network for forecasting the volatility of a financial time series 129 Revista IngenierГas Universidad de MedellГn, vol. 12, No. 22 pp. 127- 136 - ISSN 1692- 3324 - enero-junio de 2013/204 p.

As a special recurrent neural network, the Elman recurrent neural network (ERNN) has been used in the present paper for prediction. ERNN is a time-varying predictive control system that was developed with the ability to keep memory of recent events in order to predict future output. Financial Market Time Series Prediction with Recurrent Neural Networks Armando Bernal, Sam Fok, Rohit Pidaparthi December 14, 2012 Abstract Weusedechostatenetworks

models with deep recurrent neural networks provides a new way of formulating volatility (the degree of variation of time series) models that have been widely used in time series anal- ysis and prediction in п¬Ѓnance. The model comprises a pair of complementary stochastic recurrent neural networks: the gen-erative network models the joint distribution of the stochas-tic volatility process; the This study focuses on predicting stock closing prices by using recurrent neural networks (RNNs). A long short-term memory (LSTM) model, a type of RNN coupled with stock basic trading data and technical indicators, is introduced as a novel method to predict the closing price of the stock market.

the prediction of volatility a challenging task even for experts in this field. Mathematical modeling can assist in detecting the dependencies between current values of вЂ¦ stock price movements prediction, a theme of increas- ing relevance in actual п¬Ѓnancial markets, particularly from the point of view of the so called fast trading

models with deep recurrent neural networks provides a new way of formulating volatility (the degree of variation of time series) models that have been widely used in time series anal- ysis and prediction in п¬Ѓnance. The model comprises a pair of complementary stochastic recurrent neural networks: the gen-erative network models the joint distribution of the stochas-tic volatility process; the StocksNeural.net analyzes and predicts stock prices using Deep Learning and provides useful trade recommendations (Buy/Sell signals) for the individual traders and asset management companies. Predictive models based on Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN) and Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) are at the heart of our service.

This paper investigates the profitability of a trading strategy, based on recurrent neural networks, that attempts to predict the direction-of-change of the market in the case of the NASDAQ composite index. The sample extends over the period 2/8/1971 \u2013 4/7/1998, while the sub-period 4/8/1998 The cost function, as the name suggests is the cost of making a prediction using the neural network. It is a measure of how far off the predicted value, y^, is from the actual or observed value, y. There are many cost functions that are used in practice, the most popular one is computed as half of the sum of squared differences of the actual and predicted values for the training dataset.

One-Step and Multi-Step Ahead Stock Prediction Using Backpropagation Neural Networks . Guanqun Dong, Kamaladdin Fataliyev, Lipo Wang . School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering Stock Market Value Prediction Using Neural Networks Mahdi Pakdaman Naeini IT & Computer Engineering Department Islamic Azad University Parand Branch

Abstract Volatility in stock markets has been extensively studied in the applied finance literature. In this paper, Artificial Neural Network models based on various back propagation algorithms have been constructed to predict volatility in the Indian stock market through volatility of NIFTY returns and volatility of gold returns. and recurrent neural networks are the hottest topics of many approaches in financial market prediction field [2, 5]. Among all the machine learning methods, neural