HUMMERS METHOD GRAPHENE OXIDE PDF



Hummers Method Graphene Oxide Pdf

Characterization of High Yield Graphene Oxide Synthesized. Graphene oxide (GO) was obtained by the improved Hummers’ method from natural graphite (Madagascar) . The as-prepared GO suspension was purified and mildly exfoliated by centrifuging 5 times (7000 g ) with 1 M HCl and 6–9 times (15,100 g ) with doubly distilled water, in order to remove unreacted graphite, possibly as-formed amorphous carbon and inorganic salts., Mildly oxidized graphene oxide (MOGO) was achieved by chemical exfoliation of graphite through a modified Hummers' method. The MOGO is not only able to be stably dispersed in water at a high concentration (1 mg mL−1), but also preserves the highly crystalline structure of ….

Preliminary comparison of different reduction methods of

Graphene Oxide Graphene Sulfuric Acid Scribd. that the method developed by Hummers and Offeman produces exfoliated oxi-dized single graphene layers by the dispersion of graphite oxide in water. These chemically prepared monolayers of GO can be considered the precursors for the productionof graphenebythe removalof theoxygen groups. The precise structure of GO depends on the oxidation process and is still a subject of debate. The most, International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) – Volume-40 Number-2 - International , Volume.

Reduced graphene oxide was obtained by both chemical and thermal annealing methods. In the chemical method, ydrazine hydrate (80%) h was added as a reducing agent in the graphite oxide … An improved Hummers method without using NaNO 3 can produce graphene oxide nearly the same to that prepared by conventional Hummers method. This modification does not decrease the yield of product, eliminating the evolution of NO 2 /N 2 O 4 toxic gasses and simplifying the disposal of waste water because of the inexistence of Na + and NO 3 − ions.

Herein, to rectify the obstructive problems, we prepared uniform and smaller sized graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets (∼85 nm) via a modified Hummers’ method, which exhibited significantly improved hemocompatibility compared to random large sized GO nanosheets prepared by a common method. Then, we grafted unfractionated heparin (UFH) onto reduced graphene oxide (rGO) covalently using … 1. Results and discussion. Our preparation of ultrasmall graphene sheets started from graphene oxide (GO) made by using a modified Hummers method (Fig. 1(a), see Method) [4–7].

Among many methods, the synthesis of graphene including the chemical route where graphene oxide (GO) can be prepared via chemical process, namely via Hummers method … Graphene materials with different structures prepared from the same graphite by the Hummers and Brodie methods the most widely used methods to prepare graphite oxide (GO) and/or graphene oxide (GrO) is either the Hummers [20] or the Brodie [21] method. These methods differ in both the acid medium (nitric or sulfuric acid), and the type of salt used (potassium chlorate or potassium

Graphene oxide (GO) was prepared via a modified Hummers' method and reduced with hydrazine hydrate to afford RGO, where CDs (α-, β-, and γ-CD) were added in the reduction process affording the desired RGO-CD composites followed by characterization with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Raman spectroscopy (Raman), and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Graphene oxide (GO) was prepared via a modified Hummers' method and reduced with hydrazine hydrate to afford RGO, where CDs (α-, β-, and γ-CD) were added in the reduction process affording the desired RGO-CD composites followed by characterization with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Raman spectroscopy (Raman), and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD).

2 Results and discussion The Hummers method is generally regarded as a universal method for preparing graphite oxide from various graphite sources. Graphene Oxide - Free download as PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free. A pdf description of Graphene Oxide and how to make it. ONLY to be made by those who know how to handle chemicals, or trained professionals since it involves Sulfuric Acid and other toxic elements.

Graphene OxideNanocompositesNanotechnology. Graphene oxide (GO) is an outstanding material obtained by processing graphite with strong oxidizers generally produced by modified Hummer’s method. The color of graphene oxide indicates the percentage of oxidation as the yellow color of the material indicates strong oxidation with the C:O ratio between 2.1 and 2.9 [1]. The presence of oxygen functionalities in graphene oxide makes it easily, In this study, graphene was synthesized using the recently developed Improved Hummers’ method to achieve a high oxidation rate and thermal treatment of the synthesized graphene was done to increase its pore size and make it more capable for applications in purification systems. Graphite flakes were oxidized to obtain graphene oxide which was then reduced to obtain graphene. The synthesized.

Graphene OxideNanocompositesNanotechnology

hummers method graphene oxide pdf

Characterization of High Yield Graphene Oxide Synthesized. The most popular method employed for the synthesis of graphene is chemical oxidation of graphite.7 This method involves oxidation of graphite to GO using highly oxidizing reagents and subsequently reducing GO to graphene using various reductants. The advantage of this method is the formation of a large quantity of graphene in powder form (scalability), which is dispersible in both polar and, 2 Results and discussion The Hummers method is generally regarded as a universal method for preparing graphite oxide from various graphite sources..

Preliminary comparison of different reduction methods of. Rune Wendelbo CEO, Abalonyx AS www.abalonyx.com Graphene 2017 Barcelona, March 2017 Graphene Oxide and Reduced Graphene Oxide, Product Developments for Up-coming Applications, Request PDF on ResearchGate On Nov 1, 2013, Ji Chen and others published An improved Hummers method for eco-friendly synthesis of graphene oxide.

Hydrazine-reduction of graphite- and graphene oxide

hummers method graphene oxide pdf

Heparin-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites for curcumin. The effects of temperature and the type of peroxide used in improved Hummers’ method for synthesis of graphene oxide were investigated. Two different temperatures of 60 and 75 °C were examined and the performance of H 2 O 2 and 2,5-bis(tert-butylperoxy)-2,5-dimethylhexane as … The most popular method employed for the synthesis of graphene is chemical oxidation of graphite.7 This method involves oxidation of graphite to GO using highly oxidizing reagents and subsequently reducing GO to graphene using various reductants. The advantage of this method is the formation of a large quantity of graphene in powder form (scalability), which is dispersible in both polar and.

hummers method graphene oxide pdf

  • Graphene Oxide Washing after Hummers Method InstaNANO
  • Graphene-Based Products graphene oxide

  • Graphene Oxide - Free download as PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free. A pdf description of Graphene Oxide and how to make it. ONLY to be made by those who know how to handle chemicals, or trained professionals since it involves Sulfuric Acid and other toxic elements. Quantifying the graphene oxide (GO) synthesis by Hummers method [1] or its derivatives including a mechanical exfoliation step [2] has expanded in the recent years. Studies have been conducted to

    Modification of graphene oxide by laser irradiation: a new route to enhance antibacterial activity Maria A Buccheri, Daniele D Angelo, Silvia Scalese et al.-A timesaving, low-cost, high yield method for the synthesis of ultrasmall uniform graphene oxide nanosheets and their application in surfactants Zhi-Jia Luo, Hong-Zhang Geng, Xing Zhang et al.-Recent citations Development of Electrode Synthesis of Graphene Oxide Nanosheets via Modified Hummers’ Method and Its Physicochemical Properties Mohamad Fahrul Radzi Hanifah a,b , aJuhana Jaafar a* , Madzlan Aziz b , Ahmad Fauzi Ismail a , Mukhlis A. Rahman , Mohd.

    Graphene oxide (GO) was obtained by the improved Hummers’ method from natural graphite (Madagascar) . The as-prepared GO suspension was purified and mildly exfoliated by centrifuging 5 times (7000 g ) with 1 M HCl and 6–9 times (15,100 g ) with doubly distilled water, in order to remove unreacted graphite, possibly as-formed amorphous carbon and inorganic salts. that the method developed by Hummers and Offeman produces exfoliated oxi-dized single graphene layers by the dispersion of graphite oxide in water. These chemically prepared monolayers of GO can be considered the precursors for the productionof graphenebythe removalof theoxygen groups. The precise structure of GO depends on the oxidation process and is still a subject of debate. The most

    graphene oxide varies depending on chemical identity of the reductants (such as hydrazine, 1,1-dimethylhydrazine, hydro- quinone, and sodium borohydride) [11,12,26,27]. The most popular method employed for the synthesis of graphene is chemical oxidation of graphite.7 This method involves oxidation of graphite to GO using highly oxidizing reagents and subsequently reducing GO to graphene using various reductants. The advantage of this method is the formation of a large quantity of graphene in powder form (scalability), which is dispersible in both polar and

    Herein, to rectify the obstructive problems, we prepared uniform and smaller sized graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets (∼85 nm) via a modified Hummers’ method, which exhibited significantly improved hemocompatibility compared to random large sized GO nanosheets prepared by a common method. Then, we grafted unfractionated heparin (UFH) onto reduced graphene oxide (rGO) covalently using … The reduction of graphene oxide (GO) is a promising route to bulk produce graphene-based sheets. Different reduction processes result in reduced graphene oxide (RGO) with different properties. In this paper three reduction methods, chemical, thermal and electrochemical reduction, were compared on

    Concentration of Graphite: The amount of Graphite used for the synthesis of Graphene Oxide (GO) is very important factor; because oxidation penetration on Graphite depends on the concentration of the Graphite in the Sulphuric Acid. Higher the concentration of Graphite, lesser the penetration of oxidation. Graphene Oxide. Graphene oxide sees many applications in different fields, but mostly in modern technology. In electronics, graphene oxide can be used in …

    READ BOOK "Shogun by James Clavell" FREE FULL read format pdf view itunes authors READ Shogun by James Clavell ONLINE Shogun by James Clavell James clavell shogun free pdf The Nation Shogun Tai Pan Gai jin None Folly Definition of Folly by Merriam Webster the folly of driving fast on steep, winding roads his folly in thinking that he would not be noticed The folly of such an action should be apparent to everyone the follies of the modern world the famous Ziegfeld Follies of the s Folly Define Folly at Dictionary n early

    Simple room-temperature preparation of high-yield large

    hummers method graphene oxide pdf

    Simple room-temperature preparation of high-yield large. 1. Results and discussion. Our preparation of ultrasmall graphene sheets started from graphene oxide (GO) made by using a modified Hummers method (Fig. 1(a), see Method) [4–7]., MATERIALS AND METHODS Synthesis of Graphene oxide Graphene oxide (GO) was synthesized from 99.99% pure natural graphite powder, according to a modified Hummers method [18]. IJRBAT.

    Preliminary comparison of different reduction methods of

    Graphene OxideNanocompositesNanotechnology. Graphene Oxide was prepared by a modified Hummers method. Typically1.0 g natural graphite Typically1.0 g natural graphite powder and 0.5 g sodium nitrate were mixed with 23 mL, sulfuric acid in a 500 mL, and flask place in an ice, Graphene oxide (GO) was obtained by the improved Hummers’ method from natural graphite (Madagascar) . The as-prepared GO suspension was purified and mildly exfoliated by centrifuging 5 times (7000 g ) with 1 M HCl and 6–9 times (15,100 g ) with doubly distilled water, in order to remove unreacted graphite, possibly as-formed amorphous carbon and inorganic salts..

    Synthesis of Graphene Oxide Nanosheets via Modified Hummers’ Method and Its Physicochemical Properties Mohamad Fahrul Radzi Hanifah a,b , aJuhana Jaafar a* , Madzlan Aziz b , Ahmad Fauzi Ismail a , Mukhlis A. Rahman , Mohd. Graphene Oxide washing is an important task after synthesizing Graphene Oxide from Hummers method. Diluted acid is used in this task. Diluted acid is used in this task. About Us

    2/08/2017 · Synthesis of Graphene Oxide Hummers Method Synthesis of GO Modified Hummers Method How to synthesized Graphene Oxide Advance Hummers Method InstaNANO - Nanotechnology at Instanat. Category People Reduced graphene oxide was obtained by both chemical and thermal annealing methods. In the chemical method, ydrazine hydrate (80%) h was added as a reducing agent in the graphite oxide …

    Rune Wendelbo CEO, Abalonyx AS www.abalonyx.com Graphene 2017 Barcelona, March 2017 Graphene Oxide and Reduced Graphene Oxide, Product Developments for Up-coming Applications Graphene Oxide - Free download as PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free. A pdf description of Graphene Oxide and how to make it. ONLY to be made by those who know how to handle chemicals, or trained professionals since it involves Sulfuric Acid and other toxic elements.

    The reduction of graphene oxide (GO) is a promising route to bulk produce graphene-based sheets. Different reduction processes result in reduced graphene oxide (RGO) with different properties. In this paper three reduction methods, chemical, thermal and electrochemical reduction, were compared on Request PDF on ResearchGate On Nov 1, 2013, Ji Chen and others published An improved Hummers method for eco-friendly synthesis of graphene oxide

    Graphene oxide (GO) was prepared via a modified Hummers' method and reduced with hydrazine hydrate to afford RGO, where CDs (α-, β-, and γ-CD) were added in the reduction process affording the desired RGO-CD composites followed by characterization with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Raman spectroscopy (Raman), and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The reduction of graphene oxide (GO) is a promising route to bulk produce graphene-based sheets. Different reduction processes result in reduced graphene oxide (RGO) with different properties. In this paper three reduction methods, chemical, thermal and electrochemical reduction, were compared on

    graphene oxide varies depending on chemical identity of the reductants (such as hydrazine, 1,1-dimethylhydrazine, hydro- quinone, and sodium borohydride) [11,12,26,27]. Modification of graphene oxide by laser irradiation: a new route to enhance antibacterial activity Maria A Buccheri, Daniele D Angelo, Silvia Scalese et al.-A timesaving, low-cost, high yield method for the synthesis of ultrasmall uniform graphene oxide nanosheets and their application in surfactants Zhi-Jia Luo, Hong-Zhang Geng, Xing Zhang et al.-Recent citations Development of Electrode

    Graphene oxide (GO) was prepared via a modified Hummers' method and reduced with hydrazine hydrate to afford RGO, where CDs (α-, β-, and γ-CD) were added in the reduction process affording the desired RGO-CD composites followed by characterization with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Raman spectroscopy (Raman), and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). 1. Results and discussion. Our preparation of ultrasmall graphene sheets started from graphene oxide (GO) made by using a modified Hummers method (Fig. 1(a), see Method) [4–7].

    The advantage of the Tour method consists in a production of graphene oxide having a higher hydrophilic degree, in contrast with GO produced by Hummers method (see Table 2.1). Hence, this graphene oxide results more oxidized and soluble. Concentration of Graphite: The amount of Graphite used for the synthesis of Graphene Oxide (GO) is very important factor; because oxidation penetration on Graphite depends on the concentration of the Graphite in the Sulphuric Acid. Higher the concentration of Graphite, lesser the penetration of oxidation.

    Rune Wendelbo CEO, Abalonyx AS www.abalonyx.com Graphene 2017 Barcelona, March 2017 Graphene Oxide and Reduced Graphene Oxide, Product Developments for Up-coming Applications Graphene oxide was prepared using the simplified Hummers’ method. 3 g flake graphite (44 µm, 99.8% carbon, Ash colour from Asbury Carbon, New Jersey, …

    In this study, graphene was synthesized using the recently developed Improved Hummers’ method to achieve a high oxidation rate and thermal treatment of the synthesized graphene was done to increase its pore size and make it more capable for applications in purification systems. Graphite flakes were oxidized to obtain graphene oxide which was then reduced to obtain graphene. The synthesized Graphene materials with different structures prepared from the same graphite by the Hummers and Brodie methods the most widely used methods to prepare graphite oxide (GO) and/or graphene oxide (GrO) is either the Hummers [20] or the Brodie [21] method. These methods differ in both the acid medium (nitric or sulfuric acid), and the type of salt used (potassium chlorate or potassium

    Quantifying the graphene oxide (GO) synthesis by Hummers method [1] or its derivatives including a mechanical exfoliation step [2] has expanded in the recent years. Studies have been conducted to Quantifying the graphene oxide (GO) synthesis by Hummers method [1] or its derivatives including a mechanical exfoliation step [2] has expanded in the recent years. Studies have been conducted to

    Concentration of Graphite: The amount of Graphite used for the synthesis of Graphene Oxide (GO) is very important factor; because oxidation penetration on Graphite depends on the concentration of the Graphite in the Sulphuric Acid. Higher the concentration of Graphite, lesser the penetration of oxidation. Graphene Oxide. Graphene oxide sees many applications in different fields, but mostly in modern technology. In electronics, graphene oxide can be used in …

    Graphene-Based Products graphene oxide. the modified Hummer’s method. 30 Generally, 4 g graphite power was gradually added into a hot 24 mL concentrated H 2 SO 4 solution (80 °C) containing K 2 S 2 O 8 (8 g), and P 2 O 5 (8 g),, Herein, to rectify the obstructive problems, we prepared uniform and smaller sized graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets (∼85 nm) via a modified Hummers’ method, which exhibited significantly improved hemocompatibility compared to random large sized GO nanosheets prepared by a common method. Then, we grafted unfractionated heparin (UFH) onto reduced graphene oxide (rGO) covalently using ….

    The effect of temperature and type of peroxide on graphene

    hummers method graphene oxide pdf

    Heparin-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites for curcumin. 2/08/2017 · Synthesis of Graphene Oxide Hummers Method Synthesis of GO Modified Hummers Method How to synthesized Graphene Oxide Advance Hummers Method InstaNANO - Nanotechnology at Instanat. Category People, Graphene oxide is an oxidized form of graphene. The exact structure of graphene oxide depends on the synthesis method used, but it typically consists of graphene sheets laced with covalently bonded oxygen-containing functional groups including hydroxyl, epoxy, and carboxyl groups. Graphene oxide is.

    Graphene Oxide Washing after Hummers Method InstaNANO. Graphene oxide (GO) was obtained by the improved Hummers’ method from natural graphite (Madagascar) . The as-prepared GO suspension was purified and mildly exfoliated by centrifuging 5 times (7000 g ) with 1 M HCl and 6–9 times (15,100 g ) with doubly distilled water, in order to remove unreacted graphite, possibly as-formed amorphous carbon and inorganic salts., Concentration of Graphite: The amount of Graphite used for the synthesis of Graphene Oxide (GO) is very important factor; because oxidation penetration on Graphite depends on the concentration of the Graphite in the Sulphuric Acid. Higher the concentration of Graphite, lesser the penetration of oxidation..

    Graphene OxideNanocompositesNanotechnology

    hummers method graphene oxide pdf

    Graphene OxideNanocompositesNanotechnology. Graphene oxide (GO) was prepared via a modified Hummers' method and reduced with hydrazine hydrate to afford RGO, where CDs (α-, β-, and γ-CD) were added in the reduction process affording the desired RGO-CD composites followed by characterization with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Raman spectroscopy (Raman), and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Graphene oxide is an oxidized form of graphene. The exact structure of graphene oxide depends on the synthesis method used, but it typically consists of graphene sheets laced with covalently bonded oxygen-containing functional groups including hydroxyl, epoxy, and carboxyl groups. Graphene oxide is.

    hummers method graphene oxide pdf

  • Graphene Oxides Prepared by Hummers’ Hofmann’s and
  • Characterization of High Yield Graphene Oxide Synthesized
  • Graphene Oxide Washing after Hummers Method InstaNANO

  • Graphene oxide is an oxidized form of graphene. The exact structure of graphene oxide depends on the synthesis method used, but it typically consists of graphene sheets laced with covalently bonded oxygen-containing functional groups including hydroxyl, epoxy, and carboxyl groups. Graphene oxide is Herein, to rectify the obstructive problems, we prepared uniform and smaller sized graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets (∼85 nm) via a modified Hummers’ method, which exhibited significantly improved hemocompatibility compared to random large sized GO nanosheets prepared by a common method. Then, we grafted unfractionated heparin (UFH) onto reduced graphene oxide (rGO) covalently using …

    the modified Hummer’s method. 30 Generally, 4 g graphite power was gradually added into a hot 24 mL concentrated H 2 SO 4 solution (80 °C) containing K 2 S 2 O 8 (8 g), and P 2 O 5 (8 g), Graphene oxide (GO), an up‐and‐coming material rich in oxygenated groups, shows much promise in pollution management. GO is synthesised using several synthetic routes, and the adsorption behaviour of GO is investigated to establish its ability to remove …

    In this study, graphene was synthesized using the recently developed Improved Hummers’ method to achieve a high oxidation rate and thermal treatment of the synthesized graphene was done to increase its pore size and make it more capable for applications in purification systems. Graphite flakes were oxidized to obtain graphene oxide which was then reduced to obtain graphene. The synthesized The price of graphene oxide product in the market today largely depends on the QUALITY of the product. One important factor to consider for the quality is the pH value of graphene oxide when it is in the form of dispersion/solution. The preliminary graphene oxide produced by Hummer method has normally a pH value of from 2 to 3 if no washing step is involved in the entire production process

    Graphene oxide was prepared using the simplified Hummers’ method. 3 g flake graphite (44 µm, 99.8% carbon, Ash colour from Asbury Carbon, New Jersey, … 1. Results and discussion. Our preparation of ultrasmall graphene sheets started from graphene oxide (GO) made by using a modified Hummers method (Fig. 1(a), see Method) [4–7].

    Graphene oxide (GO), an up‐and‐coming material rich in oxygenated groups, shows much promise in pollution management. GO is synthesised using several synthetic routes, and the adsorption behaviour of GO is investigated to establish its ability to remove … Request PDF on ResearchGate On Nov 1, 2013, Ji Chen and others published An improved Hummers method for eco-friendly synthesis of graphene oxide

    1. Results and discussion. Our preparation of ultrasmall graphene sheets started from graphene oxide (GO) made by using a modified Hummers method (Fig. 1(a), see Method) [4–7]. Graphene Oxide. Graphene oxide sees many applications in different fields, but mostly in modern technology. In electronics, graphene oxide can be used in …

    Request PDF on ResearchGate On Nov 1, 2013, Ji Chen and others published An improved Hummers method for eco-friendly synthesis of graphene oxide Graphene Oxide. Graphene oxide sees many applications in different fields, but mostly in modern technology. In electronics, graphene oxide can be used in …

    Graphene oxide was prepared using the simplified Hummers’ method. 3 g flake graphite (44 µm, 99.8% carbon, Ash colour from Asbury Carbon, New Jersey, … In this study, graphene was synthesized using the recently developed Improved Hummers’ method to achieve a high oxidation rate and thermal treatment of the synthesized graphene was done to increase its pore size and make it more capable for applications in purification systems. Graphite flakes were oxidized to obtain graphene oxide which was then reduced to obtain graphene. The synthesized

    The reduction of graphene oxide (GO) is a promising route to bulk produce graphene-based sheets. Different reduction processes result in reduced graphene oxide (RGO) with different properties. In this paper three reduction methods, chemical, thermal and electrochemical reduction, were compared on International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) – Volume-40 Number-2 - International , Volume

    Graphene oxide (GO) was prepared via a modified Hummers' method and reduced with hydrazine hydrate to afford RGO, where CDs (α-, β-, and γ-CD) were added in the reduction process affording the desired RGO-CD composites followed by characterization with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Raman spectroscopy (Raman), and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The most popular method employed for the synthesis of graphene is chemical oxidation of graphite.7 This method involves oxidation of graphite to GO using highly oxidizing reagents and subsequently reducing GO to graphene using various reductants. The advantage of this method is the formation of a large quantity of graphene in powder form (scalability), which is dispersible in both polar and

    International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) – Volume-40 Number-2 - International , Volume the modified Hummer’s method. 30 Generally, 4 g graphite power was gradually added into a hot 24 mL concentrated H 2 SO 4 solution (80 °C) containing K 2 S 2 O 8 (8 g), and P 2 O 5 (8 g),

    2 Results and discussion The Hummers method is generally regarded as a universal method for preparing graphite oxide from various graphite sources. The effects of temperature and the type of peroxide used in improved Hummers’ method for synthesis of graphene oxide were investigated. Two different temperatures of 60 and 75 °C were examined and the performance of H 2 O 2 and 2,5-bis(tert-butylperoxy)-2,5-dimethylhexane as …

    hummers method graphene oxide pdf

    Herein, to rectify the obstructive problems, we prepared uniform and smaller sized graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets (∼85 nm) via a modified Hummers’ method, which exhibited significantly improved hemocompatibility compared to random large sized GO nanosheets prepared by a common method. Then, we grafted unfractionated heparin (UFH) onto reduced graphene oxide (rGO) covalently using … 2 Results and discussion The Hummers method is generally regarded as a universal method for preparing graphite oxide from various graphite sources.